WEEK 8 responses SOCW 6443

WEEK 8 responses SOCW 6443Respond to two of your colleagues’ posts I have chosen the 2 posts that need to be responded to and gave resourcesRead a selection of your colleagues’ postings.Respond to two of your colleagues’ posts by supporting or challenging the selected medication for treatment. If a post already has two responses, you must choose another post. Be sure to support your response with specific references from your research or from the Learning Resources.ResourcesLichtblau, L. (2011). Psychopharmacology demystified. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.Chapter 5, “Cognitive Enhancers” (pp. 65–74)Preston, J. D., O’Neal, J. H., & Talaga, M. C. (2017). Handbook of clinical psychopharmacology for therapists (8th ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Chapter 23, “Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology” (pp. 255-276)COLLEAGUES posts respond to both separately please you can also use their resourcesNoelia AntonioRE: Discussion – Week 8In the case presented, the client presented as very energetic. The client was talking loud and fast, and had tangential speech. The client appeared to become more focused when being presented by play-doh to keep her hands busy and the client back on track. 5-10% of school-aged children experience attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can then continue onto 60-80% of adolescents and 30-40% in adults. These individuals experience the inability to pay attention, impulsivity, and hyperactiveness (Lichtblau, 2011).In children and adolescents, psychopharmacology is much different. In the past, children and adolescents were treated similarly to adults, as knowledge about different biological mechanisms between children/adolescents and adults were not known (Preston, O’Neal, & Talga, 2017). Stimulants, such as Ritalin, are used in the treatment of ADHD and may be a possible treatment plan for this client. Stimulants help reduce symptoms, as well as “normalize the chemical microenvironment of the developing brain and ensure more normal brain maturation” (p. 349). Dopamine, which is responsible for the pleasure and attention centers in the brain, is affected as there is a higher concentration of it in the brain in individuals with ADHD. With the use of stimulants, this helps inhibit dopamine reuptake to allow it to bind longer and produce its effects (Levy, Wimalaweera, Moul, et al., 2013).On the contrary, stimulants have abuse potential. Despite this, children/adolescents that do use stimulants most often do not abuse them, as they do not produce euphoric effects in them, and they are least likely to be individuals who are vulnerable to substance abuse. It is important to assess any risks that may lead to drug abuse, such as depression and anxiety (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017). However, Storebo, Pedersen, Ramstad, et al. (2018), found that the use of Ritalin in children ended up in producing adverse effects such as troubles with sleep, decreased appetite, and abdominal pain. Many parents are afraid to use medications on their children for fear of what they may experience. For this reason, it is important to be transparent about what may occur. This transparency, along with monitoring, can ensure that the individual is able to feel reassured, and that if any issues occur that they can be presented and addressed. As the child grows, dosage needs to be adjusted to prevent an increase in side effects (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017).Psychopharmacology may not always be the first-line of treatment in children/adolescents with ADHD. An alternative approach to ADHD, that has also been researched in those that had autism spectrum disorder as well, used the Empowered Brain system (EBS). The EBS utilizes the use of modern smartglasses and educational modules to address both socioemotional and behavioral management skills. This system delivers coaching in social communication and cognitive skills. The EBS was found to reduce ADHD symptoms, in both groups of individuals which experienced low ADHD symptoms by 66%, and high ADHD symptoms by 56% (Vahabzadeh, Keshav, Salisbury, et al., 2018). As technology advances, ways can be explored in adapting technology in the use of interventions and treatment with individuals suffering from disorders.References:Levy, F., Wimalaweera, S., Moul, C., Brennan, J., & Dadds, M. R. (2013). Dopamine receptors and the pharmacogenetics of side-effects of stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 23(6), 423-425.Lichtblau, L. (2011). Psychopharmacology demystified. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.Preston, J. D., O’Neal, J. H., & Talaga, M. C. (2017). Handbook of clinical psychopharmacology for therapists (8th ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Vahabzadeh, A., Keshav, N. U., Salisbury, J. P., & Sahin, N. T. (2018). Improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults with autism via a digital smartglasses-based socioemotional coaching aid: short-term, uncontrolled pilot study. JMIR mental health, 5(2), e25.Jeb OliverRE: Discussion – Week 8Though it’s difficult to diagnoses anyone in a 3-minute video, this writer will make the assumption that the client has been observed and tested for Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It would be beneficial before prescribing medications to rule out other disorders such as Bi-Polar Mania, abuse, anxiety, and depression, among others(Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017).ADHD is thought to occur in the brain’s frontal lobes and issues with dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017). Medication such as stimulants and bupropion, which are dopamine agonists, has improved ADHD (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017). For Tanya, I would recommend using stimulants, such as Adderall, to treat her ADHD (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017). Taking stimulants has been shown to reduce ADHD symptoms and increase normal brain maturation (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017). According to Preston, O’Neal, and Talaga (2017), Stimulants have a low risk of being abused by ADHD clients. The use of stimulants for treating ADHD has proven positive benefits in 200 controlled studies (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017).It’s important to remember the side effect of Stimulants. These can include insomnia, which may require medication or a change in treatment regime to prevent (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017). Anorexia or a lack of hunger when taking the medication (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017). Lethargy, sedation, and impaired concentration can also come up for those taking stimulants (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017). The most significant risk is a misdiagnosis of ADHD, which can have consequences for those who end up prescribed medication (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2017).Reference:Preston, J. D., O’Neal, J. H., & Talaga, M. C. (2017). Handbook of clinical psychopharmacology for therapists (8th ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.

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