Literature Review Paper
The final paper is due!
Here are the assignments put together with the professors notes you need for the assignment.
Literature Review Paper
The purpose of this assignment is to provide you with the opportunity to select a topic in the particular area in which you have an occupational or research interest, and to complete a literature review of the topic, using a minimum of ten scholarly references. This will allow you to demonstrate mastery of the program outcomes for the B.A. psychology program at Argosy University. A helpful Web site for organizing and writing a literature review is www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/ReviewofLiterature.html.
You may also want to review the following documents that are available in the Shared Documents area of the course:
· sample literature review,
· PowerPoint document illustrating how to set up your word processor for APA style
· “Guide for Writing a Literature Review”
Based on your review of the most recent, relevant research findings on your chosen topic, submit a final version of your literature review paper, integrating feedback received from your instructor. Be sure to include a research/focal question, synthesis of the literature you reviewed, well-established conclusions, and points of discussion and/or future research.
· Begin the review by defining the objective of the paper. Introduce the reader to your focal question. What is this question intended to address? You may state your “question” in the form of a problem if you like. Describe the topic for your literature review and why you chose this topic. Explain why you think it is important. It is also useful to tell the reader how the review is organized in your introduction section, before you the transition into the body of the review.
· Organize your literature review paper by themes/theories/concepts, rather than article by article. If there is one major theme you want to highlight, state the theme. If there are three major themes or streams of thought on the topic, briefly name them—and then organize the balance of your literature review around those three streams. Think of themes, theories, concepts, lines of thought, and ideas as organizing strategies for your literature review. Your creativity in this assignment is not the content or findings but the clarity with which you organize the review and create a context for understanding the focal question.
· When you are done introducing the first line of thought, create a new paragraph to discuss studies which present another line of thought or opposing view.
· Your literature review should hit the high points of each article. You should not discuss a single article, one by one, like a grocery list. Zero in on the main theme or finding and then move on to the next theme. Remember, this is a synthesis, an integration of all the things you have learned. You are creating a discussion on paper, which in turn gives the reader a context for understanding where the scholarship has been, where it is currently, and where it likely will be heading next. Provide enough details to help the reader understand the significance of the studies you cite without “rebuilding Rome.” Be sure to evaluate the studies and offer critical comments on any shortcomings you’ve observed or that have been reported by the authors.
· Discuss the main findings and their implications. Given the results of your literature review, what is/are the prevailing argument(s)? What research question could you ask in order to further develop this area of study and contribute to the existing body of knowledge? Complete your review by drawing conclusions about your body of research and identifying gaps in the research which still remain to be explored, maybe even by you! Make an argument as to why your research question is important and relevant to the current work being done on your topic.
Apply current APA standards for editorial style, expression of ideas, and formatting of the text, headings, citations, and references. Remember to use your own words to describe and evaluate the articles. Avoid quoting the material and also cite works when you are discussing someone else’s ideas. Your paper should be double-spaced and in 12 point, Times New Roman font with normal one-inch margins, written in APA style, and free of typographical and grammatical errors. It should include a title page with a running head, an abstract and a reference page. The body of the paper should be no less than 5–6 pages in length.
The Psychological Impact of Cyberbullying on Adolescents
In today’s Internet age where an online presence is as important to the individual as their offline activities and life, the threat or dangers posed by activities such as cyberbullying are increasingly becoming an international public health concern, especially as this vice affects the development of adolescents. The victimization arising from cyberbullying can be so intense as to result in depressive symptoms in adolescents and even suicide attempts.
Indeed, those adolescents prone to cyberbullying are also susceptible to school bullying, and these victims will often have lower school performance and school attachment. There is need, therefore, to examine in detail the psychological impact that cyberbullying has on adolescents and their mental health, as well as various suggestions for therapy for affected victims.
Asam, A.E., & Samara, M. (2016). Cyberbullying and the law: A review of psychological and legal challenges. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 127-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.012
Barlińska, J., Szuster, A., & Winiewski, M. (2013). Cyberbullying among adolescent bystanders: role of the communication medium, form of violence, and empathy. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 23(1), 37-51. Doi: 10.1002/casp.2137
The one thing that I have always wanted is to get a PhD is clinical psychology. The PhD will enable me to access opportunities for research as well as knowledge on this field of psychology. Clinical psychology will provide me with the chance to contribute to the field of psychology. I will get the chance to teach others at other levels which will help advancement in this area of psychology as well as teach those at lower levels.
One specific area that I am interested in is achieving diversity in academia especially in psychology. It is important for all people to be represented in this area of education. I will be concentrating mainly in researching eating disorders which are becoming common among several young people in the United States. I want to understand the relationship between these eating disorders and areas in mental psychology such as depression. Prevention of depression and understanding other conditions that go with it has always been an area that I am very passionate about. I also want to be involved in social research that will impact larger populations of people to help deal with several psychological problems that are being witnessed today.
In my years as an undergraduate, I have participated in activities that are meant to familiarize myself with research methods as well as application of psychology in real life. I have worked as a research assistant in the lab as well as a teaching assistant. Skills that I have already learned include reviewing class sessions with students, assisting them with classwork, and grading assignments. I have also volunteered at a local shelter which deals with domestic violence victims as a counselor to get a practical idea of a counselling setting. These experiences have assisted in expanding my knowledge outside the classroom in addition to the high GPA that I have maintained as an undergraduate. I know that this motivation together with dedication will make me successful in clinical psychology.
With the current advancement of technology and the need to use the internet platform, more dangers are arising from these activities such as cyber-bullying. With the increment in cyber-bullying to most of the internet users, the issues have developed to become a global public health concern as this significantly impacts teenage development. The teens may be affected psychologically to a point where they end up developing depressive symptoms as well as suicide attempts. The issue caught my attention and I decided to conduct a deeper research regarding the issues, I used several articles which I attained from the internet which would aid me in my research. Cyber-bullying may be committed to anyone, but I decided to focus on the teens because this is a population which tends to spend most of its time on the internet and this makes them prone to the cyber-bullying activity. The adolescents may also be susceptible to school bullying and these may lead to them performing poorly in their education and other related activities. Due to the impact that cyber-bullying has on the psychological development of adolescents, the issue needs to be examined in a more detailed angle.
I used several articles to be able to research on this issue of cyber-bullying and they all provided different information which was quite helpful. Every article that I used had it upside as well as its downside. According to the article written by Asam, A.E., & Samara, M. (2016). Cyber-bullying and the law: A review of psychological and legal challenges. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 127-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.012. This article focuses on promoting safe internet use for children and adolescents. The article describes that cyber-bullying may come in different forms due to the increased use of technology and it may have severe consequences on the victim. Even though education facilities, parents as well as online social networks are encouraged to offer an online environment which is safe and very little is known regarding the online legal avenues which would be used to prevent as well as minimize cyber-bullying. This is the advantageous part of this article because it encourages the society to take time and acquire knowledge regarding the legal actions and policies that may be used to minimize cyber-bullying (Asam, 2016). On the other hand, the downside of this article is that it only encourages individuals to enlighten themselves about the legal policies but does not enlighten the population.
Following the article was written by Barlińska, J., Szuster, A., & Winiewski, M. (2013). Cyber-bullying among adolescent bystanders: the role of the communication medium, a form of violence, and empathy. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 23(1), 37-51. Doi: 10.1002/casp.2137, this article analyzes a study which was conducted to be able to understand how different teens responded as the cyber-bullying bystanders as well as to be able to view different aspects which may influence the teenager’s actions (Barlińska, 2013). The strengths of this article were that it focused on understanding the teenagers and the factors that may contribute to influencing their actions. The weakness of this article is that the study conducted used a form of bullying to be able to understand why bullying activity had a significant impact on the adolescent psychological development.
According to this article by Foody, M., Samara, M. Carlbring, P. (2015). A review of cyber-bullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy. Internet Intervention, 2(3), 235-242.
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2015.05.002. The article focused on reviewing the cyber-bullying activity and providing suggestions for the right psychological therapy through an online platform. The strengths of this article is that provides the victims of cyber-bullying with online psychological therapy which would suit the victim’s experience. The weakness of this evidence is that it provides the suggestions only but does not enlighten the victim on ways of preventing cyber-bullying (Foody, 2015).
According to this article by Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J.W. (2008). Cyber-bullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29, 129-156. Doi: 10.1080/01639620701457816. This article describes how cyber-bullying experience may undermine the user’s freedom of using as well as exploring the valuable resources online. Also, it focuses on the outcome of cyber-bullying which may be severe physical as well as functional ramifications (Hinduja, 2008). The weak point of this evidence was that it only focused on the impacts that cyber-bullying may cause to an individual.
Following this article by Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyber-bullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206-221. doi:10.1080/13811118.2010.494133, it describes, as well as cyber-bullying, contributes to suicide attempts among the adolescent population (Hinduja S. &., 2010). The article is derived from a research which it uses as its advantage. On the other hand, the weakness of the article is that it tends to focus on a single negative experience which is caused by cyber-bullying.
According to this article by Kowalski, R.M., & Limber, S.P. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyber-bullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), s13-s20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.018, the strength of the article is that it describes the correlation of cyber-bullying to academic performance, psychological functioning and physical function of the cyberbullying victim (Kowalski, 2013). The weakness of the article is that I only compare traditional as well as cyber bullying.
All the articles focus on the same topic which is cyber-bullying and the psychological impacts it may cause to its adolescent victims. Every article views the cyber-bullying issues from a different angle which provides me with vast knowledge regarding the problem in focus. The different articles allow me to understand the cyber-bullying issue in a more precise way and allow me to be able to develop a critical research article regarding the issue.
From the articles where I retrieved my evidence, it is clear that cyber-bullying is an issue of concern mostly among the teenagers and it tends to have a severe impact on the victim’s academic performance, physical as well as psychological functioning. The cyber-bullying is a concern that should be addressed by the government through developing policies which will govern the online resources and usage. Also, the government should focus on enlightening the parents, the educational facility and the society at large on the need to prevent cyber-bullying among the teenagers. If the issue on cyberbullying is not addressed as required more and more cases of cyber-bullying will be reported and make the matters worse the rapid advancement of new technology brings with its new cyberbullying methods which are more severe to the victim. The evidence has taught me that cybersecurity issues should be addressed once they arise to prevent them from becoming uncontrollable. In the case of cyber-bullying if the policies to prevent this unethical activity were developed earlier the issues would not be a world concern because the policies would have developed with time as the technology developed.
Based on the findings the hypothesis that I developed was that cyber-bullying is greatly contributed by the rapid advancement of new technology. Through the findings with the rapid advancement of new technology a greater population of the teenage population are using the internet as their study resources, for social purposes and due to the wide usage of internet more cyber-bullying cases are reported. The government should develop policies which may incriminate the offender of this unethical activity to prevent as well as to minimize cyber-bullying activity. Due to the increase in cyber-bullying to most of the internet users, the issues have developed to become a global public health concern as this significantly impacts the teenage development. The teens may be affected psychologically to a point where they end up developing depressive symptoms as well as suicide attempts. There is no other explanation that can be provided regarding the issue of cyber-bullying because the findings have asserted that the unethical activity has been contributed by the advancement of the new technology.
Having described the finding regarding my topic, I would refine my research topic from the psychological impact of cyber-bullying on adolescents to the negative effects that cyber-bullying poses to the teenage population. By refining the research topic, I would be able to cover a broader research area such as physical impacts rather than focusing on a aspect singularly. Through broadening the research, I would be able to cover almost all the negative aspects of cyber-bullying and the impacts they may cause to the victim.
Asam, A. &. (2016). . Cyber-bullying and the law: A review of psychological and legal challenges. . Computers in Human Behavior .
Barlińska, J. S. (2013). Cyber-bullying among adolescent bystanders: the role of the communication medium, a form of violence, and empathy. . Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology .
Foody, M. S. (2015). A review of cyber-bullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy. Internet Intervention .
Hinduja, S. &. (2010). Bullying, cyber-bullying, and suicide. . Archives of Suicide Research .
Hinduja, S. &. (2008). Cyber-bullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. . Deviant Behavior .
Kowalski, R. &. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyber-bullying and traditional bullying. . Journal of Adolescent Health .
Please write in third person in all lit review assignments. This means no “I” or “me” language. The tone of the assignments should be similar to what is seen in journal articles.
Your references are also missing information like journal volume number and page numbers.